Father: Sultan Murad II
Mother: Huma Hatun
Place of Birth: Edirne
Date of Birth: March 30, 1432
Death Date: May 3, 1481
Reign Date: 1444 – 1446/1451 – 1481
Reign Period: 32 Years
The Place of His Grave: Bursa (Fatih Mosque Courtyard)
Area of the Ottoman Empire at Death: 2,214,000 km2
Sultan Mehmed II (the Conqueror) is the seventh of the rulers of the Ottoman Empire, who opened a new era in history by taking Istanbul and turned the Ottoman state into an empire. Fatih Sultan Mehmed was born on March 29, 1431 in Edirne. His father is Sultan Murad II and his mother is Huma Hatun.
His father had taken him to the throne twice while he was alive, and he withdrew to Manisa. He became the ruler for the first time in 1444, when he was 14 years old. But when the Crusaders Army, who hoped to benefit from his childhood, crossed the border, Murat the second came back to the throne to meet the danger and defeated the enemy in the battle of Varna. Fatih became the sultan for the second time a year later, that is, after the victory of the Second Kosovo war, but he was sent to the Governorship of Manisa again, thinking he was a child. Upon his father’s death in February 1451, he came to Edirne from Manisa and ascended the throne. He was a 19-year-old boy.
Conqueror, who took Istanbul at the age of 21, ruled for 31 years after that and conquered two empires, fourteen states, two hundred cities during his entire reign and fully deserved the title of “Conqueror”. Among the battles he fought, there were also those that failed. But most of his battles ended in brilliant victories. In 1456, the famous Jan Hünyad destroyed Firuz Bey’s army and captured him. Again, famous in Albania, Skanderbeg, made the armies of Fatih busy for a long time. Greece and Serbia were invaded in 1459. In 1462, the Trabzon Empire passed into the hands of the Ottomans. Bosnia was taken two years later. The government of Karaman was completely ended. Albania has finally been invaded. In 1475, the army under the command of Gedik Ahmed Pasha took Crimea and after that Crimea became an Ottoman province. Turkish raiders roamed the territory of Italy and within Austria. Fatih Sultan Mehmed tried to take the castle of Rhodes, but he could not succeed. The Knights of Rhodes survived the Turkish claws until the time of Kanuni Süleyman, the grandson of the Conqueror. The Battle of Otlukbeli, which resulted with the defeat of Uzun Hasan, the ruler of the Akkoyunlu state, was also fought in 1472. Fatih Sultan Mehmed, who set out at the beginning of Ordu-yu Humayun on April 25, 1481, started to move to Üsküdar and stayed around Gebze a week later. Since the day he departed from Istanbul, his health condition had deteriorated suddenly and started to deteriorate day by day.
Yakup Pasha (his real name is Maestro Iacopo), who was originally a Venetian Jew, was increasing the dose of the poison he started to give from the day of departure with the excuse of treating the great khan. This was the fifteenth assassination attempt of the Venetians against Fatih. The previous fourteen had not achieved their goal. This time, Venetians had obtained the sultan’s private doctor with the promise of an astronomical fee. Fatih Sultan Mehmed died in his tent in Gebze on 3 May 1481, vomiting blood. However, the fury of Yakup Pasha was immediately revealed. He was lynched by Turkish soldiers before he could get the enormous wealth of 250 million that Venice had promised him.
He is buried in the tomb in the garden of Fatih Mosque, which he built in Fatih district, which is known by his name. He also built madrasahs around the mosque and opened them in a perfect way according to that time. He also had Eyüp Mosque and Hagia Sophia Madrasa built. It is famous that he respected scholars, that his teacher Molla Güranî always kissed his hand, that Molla Hüsrev stood up even in the mosque, and gave great grants to famous scholars such as Molla Mosque and Ali Kuşçu. Fatih was also busy with literature and wrote ghazals with the pseudonym Avni. 14 gazelles were published under the name Divân-ı Avnî in 1904 in Berlin.
Fatih Sultan Mehmed was a tall, muscular and strong sultan with plump cheeks, curved nose. He was one of the greatest scholars of his time and knew seven foreign languages. The scholars often gathered poets and artists and loved to chat with them. He would print and study articles on interesting and unknown topics. Akşemseddin, who was also his teacher, is one of the most valued scholars of Fatih Sultan Mehmed. Fatih Sultan Mehmed was cool and brave. He was a unique commander and administrator. He wouldn’t say anything even to his closest relatives about his work. Fatih Sultan Mehmed loved to read. He used to read philosophical works translated into Persian and Arabic. In 1466, he had the Ptolemy Map translated again and dictated the names on the map in Arabic letters. In scientific problems, he would protect scholars, regardless of their religion or sect, and dictate works for them. Fatih Sultan Mehmed, who attaches great importance to science, brought great scholars from foreign countries to Istanbul. As a matter of fact, astronomy scholar Ali Kuşçu came to Istanbul during his time. He invited the famous Painter Bellini to Istanbul and had his own painting done. He was poet and open minded. Fatih Sultan Mehmed ruled until 1481 and personally participated in 25 militatry expeditions. He had determination and willpower. He had certainly a cautious personality that implements the decisions he took. He was quite tough in the state administration. He would be very brave in wars, he would step forward to prevent defeat and encourage the soldiers to fight.